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asterias amurensis habitat

Etymology: Greek: Aster, star . robusta. This pest is sometimes confused with native species, but … They are found near protected areas of coasts, far away from areas of the ocean with high wave action, at depths up to 220 meters. a form of body symmetry in which the parts of an animal are arranged concentrically around a central oral/aboral axis and more than one imaginary plane through this axis results in halves that are mirror-images of each other. The Spotted Handfish is endemic to south-eastern Australia, occurring in the lower Derwent River estuary, Frederick Henry Bay, D'Entrecasteaux Channel and the northern regions of Storm Bay. [2][3][11] It is preyed upon by the spiny sand seastar Luidia quinaria in Tokyo Bay. Asterias amurensis is a medium-large species of sea star, having a broad disk surrounded by five arms of moderate length, each tapering from a broad base to a pointed end. Accessed [2][11] These larvae float as pelagic plankton[11] from 41 to 120 days before they find and settle on a surface and metamorphose into juvenile sea stars. 1 Invasive species Name Tutor Institution Course Date Abstract Based on the predator seastar Asterias amurensis, various results have been experienced from its spread. It is typically found in shallow waters of protected coasts and is not found on reefs or in areas with high wave action. fertilization takes place outside the female's body. Larvae are capable of sensing metamorphosis inducing factors expelled by adults via use of neural cells that are held within the adhesive papillae on the external surface of the brachiolar arms. Other habitat characteristics explaining P. fumatus abundance were depth, Asterias amurensis abundance, shell and macroalgae cover. Datasheet report for Asterias amurensis (northern Pacific seastar) KEY : T = Text Section, M = Map, L = List [2][3] Gametogenesis in females takes 9 months. native; Habitat. ("Asterias amurensis Feeding and Predators", 2012), Northern Pacific sea stars are an invasive species in some areas and an obligate predator whose presence has a great impact on benthic infauna, including mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms, and other organisms that are preyed upon by this sea star. If the seastar is ripped apart, each arm can grow into a new animal (fissiparity) if a part of the main disk is attached. …the Gulf of Mexico, and A. amurensis from the Bering Sea to Korea. [11], It is an invasive species in Australia. Asterias amurensis, also known as the Northern Pacific seastar and Japanese common starfish, is a seastar found in shallow seas and estuaries, native to the coasts of northern China, Korea, far eastern Russia, Japan, Alaska, the Aleutian Islands and British Columbia in Canada. The optimum temperature is also said to be 9-13 °C. 2012. This metamorphosis in larvae is stimulated by chemicals detected in the presence of adults and of tactile stimuli (feeling a surface). [21] Several "sea star hunting days" have been organized in Tasmania in which several thousand sea stars have been removed. mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of salt water. [2][11] In the Derwent Estuary, the Northern Pacific seastar has been connected to the decline of the endemic endangered spotted handfish. [3], A possible commensal is the bacterium Colwellia asteriadis, a new species published in 2010, which has only been isolated from Asterias amurensis hosts in the sea off Korea. March 20, 2012 breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. Examples are cnidarians (Phylum Cnidaria, jellyfish, anemones, and corals). 1997. It is typically found in shallow waters of protected coasts and is not found on reefs or in areas with high wave action. Asterias amurensis, also known as the Northern Pacific seastar and Japanese common starfish, is a seastar found in shallow seas and estuaries, native to the coasts of northern China, Korea, far eastern Russia, Japan, Alaska, the Aleutian Islands and British Columbia in Canada. Equichlamys bifrons was strongly associated with macroalgae and seagrass cover, whereas M. asperrima abundance was greatly explained by sponge cover. Murabe, N., H. Hatoyama, K. Mieko, H. Kaneko, Y. Nakajima. Females are capable of carrying about 10-25 million eggs. having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature. Classification, To cite this page: Global Invasive Species Database. Try the new interface with pre-filtering of search results based on data quality metrics Field identification Asterias amurensis typically has five arms that taper at the end to pointed tips that are generally turned upwards. [2][13][14], It is considered useful in traditional medicine in China and is in the 2015 Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. (Murabe, et al., 2007; Yoshida and Ohtsuki, 1968), Northern Pacific sea stars are known to be voracious predators with a varied diet, essentially eating any type of animal that they encounter. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! On the 1 st July the NSW Government implemented a new Biosecurity Act 2015 (the Act). [2] The development is temperature-dependant. The larva begins to feed once the gastrovascular canals are formed, and at this stage is called a bipinnaria. Most sea stars, including the Asterias rubens, may live in a variety of depths, including shallow shores to up to 200 fathoms. O. stellarum infects testes and feeds on the gonads of various seastar species. In one manipulative experiment, densities of … 2012. Accessed They were first recorded in Australia from the Derwent Estuary, Tasmania in 1986. Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Females spawn (release eggs) successively during the breeding season. National Control Plan for the Northern Pacific Seastar Asterias amurensis. The phototactic behavior of the starfish, Asterias amurensis. [11], In Japan, the sunstar Solaster paxillatus eats this species. The Biological Bulletin, 134: 516-532. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. There is no home range information available for Northern Pacific sea stars. Northern Pacific sea stars are able to perceive light stimuli and are positively phototactic. [11], In Canada it was collected in 1887 northeast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Each of these arms joins in the center of the organism to form a central disc. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis. having the capacity to move from one place to another. 2007. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands, and all of the North American as far south as the highlands of central Mexico. In 1923 Walter Kenrick Fisher synonymised Allasterias with Asterias, and in 1930 synonymised anomala, rathbuni and rathbuni var. There are about 150 species under the genus Asterias of which some important ones are A. rubens, A. gibbosa, A. vulgaris, A. forbesi, A. amurensis, A. panceri etc. In 1950 Alexander Michailovitsch Djakonov reinstated the taxon as A. rathbuni, and subsumed A. anomala under A. rathbuni as forma anomala, … This marks the transition of the larva into the brachiolaria state. Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes). The Asterias rubens settles in the Northern Atlantic region on rocky, temperate shores. Northern Pacific sea stars are also on the Global Invasive Species Database's list of the 100 Worst Invasive Species. This means that the sea star moves with a particular ray of its body in a certain direction and the rest of the organism slowly follows. Ross, D., C. Johnson, C. Hewitt. The negative economic effects of Northern Pacific sea stars are extensive. Temperate Australasia Southern coasts of Australia (ISSG 2010) *Alien and invasive in Derwent Estuary and Port Philip Bay, alien with unspecified invasiveness for Henderson Lagoon South eastern Australia including Tasmania and Victoria (CSIRO 2004, cited in ISSG 2010) *Invasive Eastern and south eastern coasts of Tasmania, … There is no specific information available regarding the lifespan of Northern Pacific sea stars. This species has also been observed digging out buried prey from under the substrate, and feeding on algae. 2005. Marine bioinvasions have become an issue of global concern following the damage caused by the Eurasian zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha, D. bugensis) in the North American Great Lakes and the Mississippi River system, the Northern Pacific toxic dinoflagellates, seastar (Asterias amurensis) and … 2006. [6] In 1936, and subsequently in 1940, Ryori Hayashi followed Fisher's interpretation, in 1940 even subsuming Asterias versicolor as a form of A. amurensis,[9] although Alexander Michailovitsch Djakonov in 1950 and subsequent authors have rejected this taxonomic interpretation. [1][4] Parasterias albertensis was described in 1914 from British Columbia by Addison Emery Verrill from a collection made late in the previous century and kept at the Smithsonian;[5] this taxon was synonymised by Walter Kenrick Fisher in 1930. Because these fishing industries are important to the economy of the region, several “sea star hunting days” have been organized in which several thousand sea stars have been removed from the coasts. This species also preys on gastropods, crabs, and barnacles. ("National Control Plan for the Northern Pacific Seastar Asterias amurensis", 2008; Choi, et al., 2010). It takes a larva as little as 41 days to about 120 days, from the time of fertilization, to develop into an adult sea star. As gametes are released, they are replaced by constantly ongoing gametogenesis within the gonads. Accessed [5], It is native to the coastal seawaters of northern China,[2][3] North[3] and South Korea,[2][3] far eastern Russia,[2] Japan,[1][2][3][11] the Aleutian Islands,[1] Alaska[1] (from the Bering Sea to the Gulf of Alaska)[11] and Canada (British Columbia). It is a voracious predator and scavenger, has a prolific reproduction capacity, and now numbers in the millions. Atlas of Living Australia. Spines also line the ventral groove of each arm, where the tube feet are found. March 18, 2012 Northern Pacific Seastars are native to Japan, Korea and eastern Russia. As they move, the animals exhibit what is known as a “typical advancing posture". nortonensis with Asterias amurensis. Asterias amurensis: Asterias amurensis is common in cold-water off the coast of Japan . National Science Foundation International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 60/8: 1952-1957. The National Introduced Marine Pest Information System- NIMPIS. OBIS. Interspecific relationships between egg size and the level of parental investment per offspring in echinoderms. [8][7], Asterias pectinata was described from Kamchatka by Johann Friedrich Brandt in 1834 or 1835, and synonymised with Asterias amurensis by Fisher in 1930. eats mollusks, members of Phylum Mollusca. March 20, 2012 Seward, Alaska: The Alaska SeaLife Center. Marine Biology, 127(4): 673-685. Bivalves, such as mussels, scallops and clams compromise the largest part of this species' diet. [2] It can be selective or opportunistic depending on availability of prey. at http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/19568. Asterias amurensis (Northern Pacific Sea Star) is a species of echinoderms in the family Asteriidae. Lates niloticus Micropterus salmoides Mnemiopsis leidyi Mytilus galloprovincialis Oncorhynchus … Department of Fisheries, Western Australia. (Murabe, et al., 2007; Stevens, 2012), The average lifespan of a sea star is around 10 years, although many sea star species are able to live to about the age of 50. Population booms in Japan can affect the harvest of mariculture operations and are costly to combat. The National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions. 2002. areas with salty water, usually in coastal marshes and estuaries. The animals can survive at least four years in the wild in Japan, but it is estimated that most live to two to three years. This stage later develops brachiolar arms, with three of them combining with a central adhesive disk to form the brachiolar complex. November 26, 2012 They use their suction feet to force open the bivalve’s shell, then insert the stomach, and digest the prey. In sea star. having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Search in feature 2008. Irregularly arranged spines run down the length of each arm. body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. Paik, S., H. Park, S. Yi, S. Yun. It can survive in a temperature range of 0–25ºC. studied developing a probe to test ballast water and detect the presence of this specific maritime pest. Can be confused only with Uniophora granifera, but differs from that species in having distinctly pointed arms and one row of spines (as opposed to two) along the ambulacral groove on the underside.Juvenile animals generally have blotches of purple on a yellowish background, but these tend to disappear as the animal matures Help us improve the site by taking our survey. ("National Control Plan for the Northern Pacific Seastar Asterias amurensis", 2008; Stevens, 2012). living in the northern part of the Old World. The habitat range of both species overlaps: Asterias occurs on sheltered silt to sand and on rocky reefs at 0 to 35 m depth, while Fulvia occurs on sheltered silt to sand at 0 to 30 m depth (Edgar 1997). The ships suck in the ballast water containing seastar larvae, in a port such as one in Japan, and let it out in a port such as one in Tasmania, the larvae come out with the water, and metamorphose into juvenile sea stars. [2][11] In laboratory experiments in Korea, Charonia sp. But these strange-looking, ambulatory fish are threatened with extinction due to habitat decline, ... and predation by invasive species such as Northern Pacific seastars (Asterias amurensis). the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic. [15], It is a predator which can impact the abundance of juvenile bivalves. [2] The optimum temperature is also said to be 9–13 °C. In its usual orientation, the lower, or oral, surface composed by margins of the disc and arms is flat, and has a distinct boundary with the aboral surface. [2] It will also eat dead fish and fish waste. March 18, 2012 ("Asterias amurensis (Japanese seastar)", 2012; Stevens, 2012), Sexual maturity occurs in both males and females when they are 3.6-5.5 cm in length. 2010. see also oceanic vent. [2], list of the world's 100 worst invasive species, Ballast water discharge and the environment, "Fortasatte kritiske og beskrivende Bidrag til Kundskab om Sostjernerne (Asteriderne)", "Monograph of the shallow-water starfishes of the North Pacific coast from the Arctic Ocean to California", "Asteroidea of the North Pacific and Adjacent Waters, Part 3: Forcipulata", "Contributions to the Classification of the Sea-stars of Japan", "100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species", "Review on animal scientific names in the pharmacopoeias of Korean, China, and Japan", "Stowaway drives fish to brink of extinction", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Asterias_amurensis&oldid=993934536, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 07:05. Early detection remains the best solution to reducing harmful effects of invasive species. Habit and Habitat of Asterias: Asterias is exclusively marine, bottom dwelling or benthonic animal, inhabiting various types of bottom, mainly in the littoral zone where they crawl about or may remain quiescent at time’s, either in the open or more or less concealed. Yoshida, M., H. Ohtsuki. It is not found in areas of high wave action or on reefs. When they do move, they step using their tube feet. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa. The entire mitochondrial genome of As. This process is all dependent upon the temperature of the water in which the sea star is developing; the warmer the water, the faster the rate of development. March 20, 2012 [11] The species reproduces seasonally and spawns from January to April in Japan, from June to October in Russia,[2] and between July and October in Australia. However, they may occasionally be eaten by Japanese sun stars (Solaster paxillatus). March 20, 2012 the area of shoreline influenced mainly by the tides, between the highest and lowest reaches of the tide. It has a temperature tolerance of 0-25 °C according to one source, or 5-20 °C according to another. Affects: Native species, including oysters, mussels and scallops. [1][6][7], Walter Kenrick Fisher also subsumed Asterias rollestoni as a forma of A. amurensis in 1930,[8][6] and further stated that A. versicolor might well intergrade with his A. amurensis f. rollestoni to the north of its range. Alaska SeaLife Center Guide to Marine Life For Visitors, Staff, and all Marine Life Enthusiasts. Impact of introduced seastars Asterias amurensis on survivorship of juvenile commercial bivalves Fulvia tenuicostata. reproduction that is not sexual; that is, reproduction that does not include recombining the genotypes of two parents. It has been found at a maximum depth of 220m. Under Schedule 2 of this Act the Northern Pacific Seastar is declared as prohibited matter in NSW. These showed no effects from hosting the bacteria. ("Asterias amurensis (Japanese seastar)", 2012; "Ocean Biogeographic Information System", 2012; Byrne, et al., 1997; Stevens, 2012), Northern Pacific sea stars live in estuarine, intertidal, and coastal zones and prey on other marine inhabitants in or on the substrate. The average density of Asterias amurensis recorded at this site prior to this study In Japan it is abundant at 20m depth, but decreases to 50m, where it is replaced by another seastar species, Distolasterias nipon. Byrne, M., M. Morrice, B. Wolf. Asterias amurensis can be identified in the field and in the laboratory. This species hs no special conservation status. Due to their presence in estuarine habitats, these sea stars are able to tolerate a large range of salinities, from 18.7-41.0 ppt. Free shipping for many products! [1], There are two forms (or subspecies) are accepted in the World Register of Marine Species by Christopher Mah as of 2008:[1], It can grow up to 50 cm in diameter,[2][3][11] although this is exceptional and the arms usually grow to 16.1 cm, with the ratio between the length of the arm and the radius of its disc ranging from 3.6:1 to 5.9:1. Geographic Range. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Starfish Sea Animal Flatbottom Seastar Asterias amurensis Small Marine Specimen at the best online prices at eBay! [1], This species was first described in 1871 by Christian Frederik Lütken. Features: Yellow to orange with purple markings, grows to yellow as an adult. Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. Species Common name Habitat Native range Studies Asterias amurensis Carcinus maenas Caulerpa taxifolia Cercopagis pengoi Clarias batrachus Corbula amurensis Cyprinus carpio Eichhornia crassipes Eriocheir sinensis Gambusia spp. Adhesive papillae on the brachiolar arms of brachiolaria larvae in two starfishes, Asterina pectinifera and Asterias amurensis, are sensors for metamorphic inducing factors(s). They are found in marine habitat. Other possible parasites found associated with these seastars are the skeleton shrimps Caprella astericola, the copepod Scottomyzon gibberum, the polychaete scaleworm Arctonoe uittuta, species from the harpacticoid copepods genera Parathalestris, Thalestris, Paramphiacella and Eupelite, as well as several unidentified gammaridean amphipods and an unidentified apicomplexan living within it.[11]. We collected 10, 5, and 10 specimens near Asamushi, Onagawa, and Ushimado, respectively , and determined their complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Introduction of the Northern Pacific asteroid Asterias amurensis to Tasmania: reproduction and current distribution. They pre­fer a slightly cold en­vi­ron­ment of about 7-10ºC; how­ever, this species has adapted to the warmer wa­ters of the Aus­tralian coast, which av­er­age about 22ºC. Mature ovaries are characterized by the constant release of eggs as well as their orange color. McEdward, L., K. Morgan. The map below shows the Australian distribution of the species based on public sightings and specimens in Australian Museums. Accessed [11], In Japan it is found on both coasts from Hokkaido to (northern) Kyushu and in the Seto Inland Sea: in Mitsu Bay off the coast of Yokohama, in Aomori Prefecture off the coast of Odanozawa and elsewhere, along the coast of Yamagata Prefecture, Tokyo Bay, between Tateishi and Ogashima in Sagami Bay off Nagai, off Hayama, in Karatsu Bay, Hakata Bay, Osaka Bay, Ise Bay, Sendai Bay and Ariake Bay. Settlement of the Asterias … Topics This species shows a wide range of colors, from orange to yellow, and sometimes purple on their dorsal side. In Alaska, king crabs are known to feed on this species, and in laboratory settings, snails in the genus Charonia (tritons) have shown a preference for this species, as opposed to feeding on other marine life. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the starfish Asterias amurensis. They pose a challenge to commercial bivalves and benthic marine communities, specifically in Australia. "Asterias amurensis Feeding and Predators" (On-line). It is distinguished by its lack of interactinal plates and the evenly reticulated arrangement of the dorsal plates. Uscian, J. animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature. All other documented information about the communication and perception abilities of these sea stars regards sensory interactions between larval and adult forms. The colour on the top and sides of the arms [2][3] The underside is completely yellow. uses smells or other chemicals to communicate. Shah, F. and S. Surati 2013. offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) 2001. Habitat Description While Asterias amurensis (northern Pacific seastar) prefers waters temperatures of 7-10°C, it has adapted to warmer Australian waters of 22°C. amurensis was 16,419–16,421 … at http://www.marinepests.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/952489/Asterias-ncp-08.pdf. Read More. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. Taxon Information Australia: Commonwealth of Australia. an area where a freshwater river meets the ocean and tidal influences result in fluctuations in salinity. [11], In Russia it is found in the Peter the Great Gulf in Primorsky Krai, in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in the eastern Chukchi Sea to the Arctic Ocean,[11] Kamchatka,[10] the Kuril Islands, both east and west shores of Strait of Tartary and on both coasts of Sakhalin. [2][3] The arms are unevenly covered with small, jagged-edged spines, which line the groove in which the tube feet lie, and join up at the mouth in a fan-like shape. [citation needed], Trials have been run to find effective removal processes including physical removal of A. amurensis, which was estimated by workshop participants to be the most effective, safe and politically attractive when compared with chemical or biological control processes. It is typically found in shallow waters of protected coasts and is not found on reefs or in areas with high wave action. Accessed ("Introduced Marine Aquatic Invaders - A Feld Guide", 2012), Northern Pacific sea stars are not generally preyed upon by other organisms. (Uscian, 2006), These sea stars exhibit positive phototactic behavior, moving toward light. the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline. These sea stars have ectosomatic organs, meaning that the pores for gamete expulsion are in direct contact with the marine environment. It can cause castration and be lethal for Asterias amurensis in Japan. at http://adl.brs.gov.au/marinepests/index.cfm?fa=main.spDetailsDB&sp=6000005721#generalInfo. [11], These seastars move towards light. at http://www.iobis.org/. [3] Males and females can be sexually mature when they reach 3.6–5.5 cm in length,[2][11] but by far most males and females reproduce when around 10 cm in diameter, when they are 1 year old. Northern Pacific seastar (Asterias amurensis) In Australia. [11], Male and female seastars release their gametes into the seawater (external fertilization),[2][11] resulting in fertilised eggs. They are known to pull apart the shell of these organisms with their arms, and then evert their stomachs into the shell cavity to digest their prey. Habitat description While Asterias amurensis (northern Pacific seastar) prefers waters temperatures of 7-10°C, it has adapted to warmer Australian waters of 22°C. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). (trumpet snail) were found to prefer this species above other seastars, sea cucumbers and sea urchins. It competes with the starfish Uniophora granifera and Coscinasterias muricata, and Pacific walruses, Odobenus rosmarus ssp. They are native to China, South Korea, Japan, and North Korea. It was first collected in 1982 and first reported in 1985 in the Derwent River estuary in Tasmania, and first reported in Victoria, Australia in 1998. the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females. This species has been introduced to oceanic areas of Tasmania in southern Australia. A row of spines from each arm come together near the mouth area, creating a fan-like appearance. They are found near pro­tected areas of coasts, far away from areas of the ocean with high wave ac­tion, at depths up to 220 me­ters. "Asterias amurensis (Japanese seastar)" (On-line). Customise filters (scroll to see full list) Taxon. The Biological Bulletin, 200(1): 33-50. [5], This species has been introduced to oceanic areas of Tasmania in southern Australia, parts of Europe, Maine[2] and New Zealand. ("Asterias amurensis (Japanese seastar)", 2012; Stevens, 2012), Male and female sea stars release their respective gametes in to the aquatic environment. Disclaimer: They prefer a slightly cold environment of about 7-10 °C. Occasionally, they have been seen exhibiting cannibalistic behavior when food sources are particularly low. While A. amurensis (northern Pacific seastar) prefers waters temperatures of 7-10°C, it has adapted to warmer Australian waters of 22°C. In their native range they are known to go through 'bust and boom' cycles … The starfish is capable of tolerating many … "Ocean Biogeographic Information System" (On-line). divergens, for bivalve prey. the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. 5 arms with pointed, upturned tips. Estimates made in Port Philip Bay (where they were first detected), indicate that numbers reached as much as 12 million individuals in two years. Males are also reproductively mature for about 6 months of the year, with maturity being characterized by the yellowish-brown color of the testes. [2] Mountfort et al. Habitat description While Asterias amurensis (northern Pacific seastar) prefers waters temperatures of 7-10°C, it has adapted to warmer Australian waters of 22°C. Accessed January 06, 2021 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Asterias_amurensis/. A brachiolarian larva can remain in the water column for about 120 days before it finally settles and undergoes metamorphosis into the adult sea star. It is common within its native range.

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